The news, finally, is that OLPC (One Laptop Per Child) is falling apart. The news come via this post on OLPC News, which cites:
- multiple failures on project delivery
- poor evaluation results
- top staff leaving in droves.
I thought OLPC would fall apart about two years ago. There were two flaws in its business model:
- It is hardware oriented—as reflected in its name. Development is a social process, not a hardware process. Like the difference between sustainable village water supplies, which start with community engagement and ownership, and “one pump per village.” The former is development, the latter is not going to work—as we learned in the 1960s.
- OLPC can never keep up with the mainstream manufacturers. It was clear then that smartphones and netbooks were getting cheaper and better at a prodigious rate. A single firm, with limited capital, using proprietary hardware and proprietary software can never, ever sustain the pace of innovation required to keep up.
There are three lessons here for architects working in development:
Development is not a hardware problem
Architects love to design stuff, and I see endless efforts to design one-off “model” buildings, new forms of disaster shelter, new forms of housing, new forms of school. None of these, for the most part, ever take off. Most of them don’t even have any influence, no matter how well thought through or smart they are.
- Development is a social process
- Development problems are social process problems, not built form problems
- There are always local builders and designers, who don’t look kindly to foreigners air-dropping supposed solutions into their country
- No matter how smart the air-dropped designs, they always miss many important factors which local builders and designers know about, but are not readily visible. (In other words: buildings are the way they are for good local reasons, not because local people are bad designers.)
Solution: Work on incremental improvements to the process of building, as understood by local experts, with local exports. Use all your skills as an architect, not just your drawing board skills.
Development is not an island
Remote, rural, or poor areas may look like special worlds, separated from the big smoke and the middle class, but in fact rich and poor both live in the same economy. You can’t design for this supposed “special world”, without realising that you are competing with the whole economy, and—increasingly—the global economy.
If you design your beautiful, sophisticated, passive thermal building, and next month the Chinese start selling $35 solar air conditioners (a scenario that’s not unlikely), you will be left in the dust.
Solution: Watch what people are using today, from the global economy. Work with the developments in that economy. Do not attempt to build an “alternative” solution predicated on an alternative economy and alternative social world.
Business is business
Change takes time. Learning takes time. It’s difficult to undertake efforts in sustainable development if you yourself, or your team, are not a sustainable enterprise.
I love this passage from Dickens’ character Mr Micawber, which expresses the key to business sustainability pithily and poetically:
Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure nineteen pounds nineteen and six, result happiness. Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure twenty pounds nought and six, result misery.
Solution: Have a sustainable business model, which ensures at least a chance that money in is greater than money out over the long term. And then execute well.